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Empowering blockchains: Partisia Blockchain’s MPC breaks ZKP limits for privacy solutions.

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Partisia Blockchain combines multiparty computation with blockchain technology to enable immutable, distributed, and—crucially—private data processing. It offers a breakthrough for firms in a range of industries, civil society organizations, and governments—any entity that holds or wants to access large amounts of sensitive data.

What does blockchain offer industry, civil society, and government?

Blockchain technology offers a wide range of benefits to organizations that work with data and value in the digital space.

The problem with blockchain

If blockchain offers so many benefits, why have businesses and governments been slow to adopt it?

Blockchain’s inherent lack of privacy is a big concern.

The blockchain’s transparency—one of its core features—can be a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it ensures the system’s integrity and reliability. On the other, it means every transaction is visible to all participants on the network.

Blockchain needs reliable, privacy-preserving technologies. Some innovative solutions have already been developed, like zero-knowledge proofs and ring signatures. But these are add-ons, afterthoughts bolted onto existing blockchains.

Partisia Blockchain is different

Seven features set Partisia Blockchain apart.

Multiparty computation for privacy

Partisia Blockchain’s most significant contribution to blockchain technology is secure multiparty computation (MPC). MPC protects data not only when it’s stored or communicated but even when it is processed. This security allows individuals and organizations to control their private data while allowing others to use it for specific purposes.

Secure and efficient MPC requires multiple parties to share computational work because it prevents any one entity from viewing more than a fraction of the data. Partisia Blockchain orchestrates MPC across the blockchain’s nodes using an approach our team pioneered as early as 2008.

Combining blockchain with MPC has many practical applications. One such is a new type of data exchange. Data owners can maintain control of their data and share or exchange only the results of privacy-preserving computations. This method could enable patients to lend their healthcare data to researchers without revealing their identity, allow competition companies to share best practices without disclosing trade secrets, or enable financial markets to compare private order books and execute matching trades that would otherwise go unfulfilled.

In addition to MPC, Partisia Blockchain features an extensive set of tools and a new set of MPC protocols named REAL. REAL offers efficient data pre-processing, simplifying blockchain orchestration, and accelerating real-time MPC computations. We call it MPC-as-a-service, a new standard for conducting privacy-preserving computation within and beyond the blockchain.

Provable, fast-track consensus for efficiency and accuracy

Partisia Blockchain’s provable fast-track consensus is a new approach to blockchain consensus that addresses the inefficiencies and limitations of the Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) model. The BFT model, traditionally used in blockchain systems, ensures consensus by waiting for the verification of two-thirds of the nodes, which can be a slow process affecting scalability.

Partisia Blockchain’s Eager FastTrack consensus model operates on a “trust but verify” principle. Transactions are added to the ledger immediately, executed node-by-node right after signing, and a peer-to-peer network that aggregates signatures establishes consensus. When a node receives signatures from at least two-thirds of all nodes, it registers a proof-of-justification (PoJ) and moves on to the next block, a process described as lightning-fast finalisation.

In rare cases where the Eager FastTrack model fails to reach consensus, the protocol reverts to a complete, BFT-style consensus before restarting the FastTrack model. This approach achieves rapid finalisation while maintaining the security of a BFT-style consensus.

Partisia Blockchain has also developed measures to ensure validators construct and validate transactions. It requires validators to build a cryptographic proof specific to each node, indicating it has signed the correct version of the blockchain before authenticating a block.

Complete sharding for speed

The “blockchain trilemma” is the challenge of achieving security, scalability, and decentralisation simultaneously in a blockchain system. Sharding, which involves partitioning the workload between groups of nodes called shards, is the solution to this problem.

A common governance shard organises and delegates the validation work to other shards in this system. Each shard performs its allocated validations and returns the results to the governance shard. This process ensures all nodes are evenly represented across all shards and participate in validating every transaction.

Sharding does not affect the blockchain’s provable consensus model or its decentralisation and security but allows validations to coincide, significantly enhancing scalability. For instance, a blockchain with three shards could handle three times as many concurrent transactions as a non-sharded blockchain. Each shard in the Partisia Blockchain has a capacity of 1000 transactions per second (TPS), with new shards created as needed.

Even during a rare, time-consuming reset, the effect on the overall capacity of the blockchain is minor, as the governance shard reallocates the workload to other shards. In essence, complete sharding allows Partisia Blockchain to dynamically balance load, similar to techniques used in cloud computing, enhancing its scalability without compromising security or decentralisation.

Collateralized token bridging for flexibility

Partisia Blockchain’s collateralized token bridge facilitates interactions between independent blockchain networks. Traditional token bridges often face security challenges as they shift value between differing security models.

Partisia Blockchain’s solution incorporates the bridge into the network’s infrastructure and relies on cryptographic tools and economic principles for stability. At its core, the bridge operates through collateralized token transfers, which maintain a one-to-one representation across two blockchain networks, mirroring a double bookkeeping system used in banking.

The token bridge consists of three parts:

  • It utilizes a double bookkeeping principle that syncs information on both blockchains within regularly expiring epochs. A select set of Oracle nodes, the Small Oracle, manages this task.
  • Collateralized bridging occurs within these epochs, with Small Oracle nodes holding sufficient $MPC tokens—our native utility token—to function as collateral. If there is suspicion of fraud in an epoch, any $MPC token holder can stake to initiate a dispute.
  • An MPC-based signature scheme, managed by a Large Oracle that includes all available baker
    nodes, selects the Small Oracles.

The Large Oracle also mirrors the identities of the Small and Large Oracle members on the partner chain.

Zero-knowledge layer for security

Partisia Blockchain aims to address the lack of confidentiality and privacy in mainstream blockchain technology, a challenge that currently hinders its widespread use. Traditional blockchains provide complete transparency and pseudonymised user representation, complicating private transaction integration.

Partisia Blockchain’s design introduces privacy in a regulatory-compliant and flexible way. It builds privacy atop a transparent mainstream blockchain model, allowing developers to balance transparency and privacy. Privacy-preserving computation is added as a service on the primary blockchain, enabling complete privacy if needed.

This privacy-preserving computation is provided and operated by accredited ZK nodes in known jurisdictions, ensuring regulatory compliance with data protection regulations like GDPR. Personal Identifiable Information (PII) never enters the transparent blockchain but is managed exclusively by the ZK nodes in encrypted form. Jurisdiction management on the ZK nodes also ensures that the PII data remains within a given jurisdiction and stays encrypted. This system allows for compliance with GDPR requirements, such as the “Right to privacy” (keeping data private at all stages: at rest, in transit, and during processing) and the “Right to be forgotten” (using data ad hoc and deleting encrypted data used in zero-knowledge computations after use).

Unified public and private smart contracts for ease-of-use

Partisia Blockchain’s smart contracts add a vital dimension to blockchain technology by incorporating privacy-preserving computations. These smart contracts, programs executed on the blockchain according to predefined conditions, allow for an automated data-driven economy where users fully control their private data. This innovation represents a shift from the current internet economy, where third parties control user data.

The smart contracts on Partisia Blockchain coordinate public and private computations using a unified language that allows developers to use advanced technologies like zero-knowledge computation or MPC-as-a-service. The platform aims to embed the expertise of its team into the smart contract language over time, simplifying the adoption of MPC technology while increasing efficiency and preventing security breaches.

Combining general privacy-preserving computation with a unified smart contract language will advance the blockchain ecosystem and open new use cases.

Market for trust for peace of mind

Partisia Blockchain is developing a trust-based marketplace to foster a strong network of efficient and trusted nodes. This system will incentivise nodes that efficiently validate, propagate information, and operate zero-knowledge computations and token bridges that users trust.

The first part of the trust market will incentivise individual nodes running essential blockchain services such as peer-to-peer propagation of information, validation, and execution of transactions. The initial incentives will adjust the reward sharing, focusing on measures like the number of blocks produced as Sequencer. The scheme will extend to reward nodes revealing hidden activities in the peer-to-peer network and reward the most active information propagators.

The second part of the trust market will concentrate on the services of zero-knowledge and Oracle nodes. As the network grows, users will influence the selection of nodes for zero-knowledge computation and token bridges. The selection process will evolve into a market that rewards quality—the most trusted nodes will receive a higher price for their services.

This two-sided incentive structure sets a new standard for incentivising a decentralised network by creating a comprehensive and transparent market for trust.

Multiparty computation for privacy

Partisia Blockchain’s most significant contribution to blockchain technology is secure multiparty computation (MPC). MPC protects data not only when it’s stored or communicated but even when it is processed. This security allows individuals and organizations to control their private data while allowing others to use it for specific purposes.

Secure and efficient MPC requires multiple parties to share computational work because it prevents any one entity from viewing more than a fraction of the data. Partisia Blockchain orchestrates MPC across the blockchain’s nodes using an approach our team pioneered as early as 2008.

Combining blockchain with MPC has many practical applications. One such is a new type of data exchange. Data owners can maintain control of their data and share or exchange only the results of privacy-preserving computations. This method could enable patients to lend their healthcare data to researchers without revealing their identity, allow competition companies to share best practices without disclosing trade secrets, or enable financial markets to compare private order books and execute matching trades that would otherwise go unfulfilled.

In addition to MPC, Partisia Blockchain features an extensive set of tools and a new set of MPC protocols named REAL. REAL offers efficient data pre-processing, simplifying blockchain orchestration, and accelerating real-time MPC computations. We call it MPC-as-a-service, a new standard for conducting privacy-preserving computation within and beyond the blockchain.

Provable, fast-track consensus for efficiency and accuracy

Partisia Blockchain’s provable fast-track consensus is a new approach to blockchain consensus that addresses the inefficiencies and limitations of the Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) model. The BFT model, traditionally used in blockchain systems, ensures consensus by waiting for the verification of two-thirds of the nodes, which can be a slow process affecting scalability.

Partisia Blockchain’s Eager FastTrack consensus model operates on a “trust but verify” principle. Transactions are added to the ledger immediately, executed node-by-node right after signing, and a peer-to-peer network that aggregates signatures establishes consensus. When a node receives signatures from at least two-thirds of all nodes, it registers a proof-of-justification (PoJ) and moves on to the next block, a process described as lightning-fast finalisation.

In rare cases where the Eager FastTrack model fails to reach consensus, the protocol reverts to a complete, BFT-style consensus before restarting the FastTrack model. This approach achieves rapid finalisation while maintaining the security of a BFT-style consensus.

Partisia Blockchain has also developed measures to ensure validators construct and validate transactions. It requires validators to build a cryptographic proof specific to each node, indicating it has signed the correct version of the blockchain before authenticating a block.

Complete sharding for speed

The “blockchain trilemma” is the challenge of achieving security, scalability, and decentralisation simultaneously in a blockchain system. Sharding, which involves partitioning the workload between groups of nodes called shards, is the solution to this problem.

A common governance shard organises and delegates the validation work to other shards in this system. Each shard performs its allocated validations and returns the results to the governance shard. This process ensures all nodes are evenly represented across all shards and participate in validating every transaction.

Sharding does not affect the blockchain’s provable consensus model or its decentralisation and security but allows validations to coincide, significantly enhancing scalability. For instance, a blockchain with three shards could handle three times as many concurrent transactions as a non-sharded blockchain. Each shard in the Partisia Blockchain has a capacity of 1000 transactions per second (TPS), with new shards created as needed.

Even during a rare, time-consuming reset, the effect on the overall capacity of the blockchain is minor, as the governance shard reallocates the workload to other shards. In essence, complete sharding allows Partisia Blockchain to dynamically balance load, similar to techniques used in cloud computing, enhancing its scalability without compromising security or decentralisation.

Collateralized token bridging for flexibility

Partisia Blockchain’s collateralized token bridge facilitates interactions between independent blockchain networks. Traditional token bridges often face security challenges as they shift value between differing security models.

Partisia Blockchain’s solution incorporates the bridge into the network’s infrastructure and relies on cryptographic tools and economic principles for stability. At its core, the bridge operates through collateralized token transfers, which maintain a one-to-one representation across two blockchain networks, mirroring a double bookkeeping system used in banking.

The token bridge consists of three parts:

  • It utilizes a double bookkeeping principle that syncs information on both blockchains within regularly expiring epochs. A select set of Oracle nodes, the Small Oracle, manages this task.
  • Collateralized bridging occurs within these epochs, with Small Oracle nodes holding sufficient $MPC tokens—our native utility token—to function as collateral. If there is suspicion of fraud in an epoch, any $MPC token holder can stake to initiate a dispute.
  • An MPC-based signature scheme, managed by a Large Oracle that includes all available baker
    nodes, selects the Small Oracles.

The Large Oracle also mirrors the identities of the Small and Large Oracle members on the partner chain.

Zero-knowledge layer for security

Partisia Blockchain aims to address the lack of confidentiality and privacy in mainstream blockchain technology, a challenge that currently hinders its widespread use. Traditional blockchains provide complete transparency and pseudonymised user representation, complicating private transaction integration.

Partisia Blockchain’s design introduces privacy in a regulatory-compliant and flexible way. It builds privacy atop a transparent mainstream blockchain model, allowing developers to balance transparency and privacy. Privacy-preserving computation is added as a service on the primary blockchain, enabling complete privacy if needed.

This privacy-preserving computation is provided and operated by accredited ZK nodes in known jurisdictions, ensuring regulatory compliance with data protection regulations like GDPR. Personal Identifiable Information (PII) never enters the transparent blockchain but is managed exclusively by the ZK nodes in encrypted form. Jurisdiction management on the ZK nodes also ensures that the PII data remains within a given jurisdiction and stays encrypted. This system allows for compliance with GDPR requirements, such as the “Right to privacy” (keeping data private at all stages: at rest, in transit, and during processing) and the “Right to be forgotten” (using data ad hoc and deleting encrypted data used in zero-knowledge computations after use).

Unified public and private smart contracts for ease-of-use

Partisia Blockchain’s smart contracts add a vital dimension to blockchain technology by incorporating privacy-preserving computations. These smart contracts, programs executed on the blockchain according to predefined conditions, allow for an automated data-driven economy where users fully control their private data. This innovation represents a shift from the current internet economy, where third parties control user data.

The smart contracts on Partisia Blockchain coordinate public and private computations using a unified language that allows developers to use advanced technologies like zero-knowledge computation or MPC-as-a-service. The platform aims to embed the expertise of its team into the smart contract language over time, simplifying the adoption of MPC technology while increasing efficiency and preventing security breaches.

Combining general privacy-preserving computation with a unified smart contract language will advance the blockchain ecosystem and open new use cases.

Market for trust for peace of mind

Partisia Blockchain is developing a trust-based marketplace to foster a strong network of efficient and trusted nodes. This system will incentivise nodes that efficiently validate, propagate information, and operate zero-knowledge computations and token bridges that users trust.

The first part of the trust market will incentivise individual nodes running essential blockchain services such as peer-to-peer propagation of information, validation, and execution of transactions. The initial incentives will adjust the reward sharing, focusing on measures like the number of blocks produced as Sequencer. The scheme will extend to reward nodes revealing hidden activities in the peer-to-peer network and reward the most active information propagators.

The second part of the trust market will concentrate on the services of zero-knowledge and Oracle nodes. As the network grows, users will influence the selection of nodes for zero-knowledge computation and token bridges. The selection process will evolve into a market that rewards quality—the most trusted nodes will receive a higher price for their services.

This two-sided incentive structure sets a new standard for incentivising a decentralised network by creating a comprehensive and transparent market for trust.

Our solutions to market limitations

Partisia Blockchain offers solutions to some of the most difficult problems in the digital economy.

Data privacy

US$200 billion market

The problem

  • The current tech giants control a lot of data.
  • A lack of privacy limits consumers’ bargaining power.

Our solution

  • Privacy on all platforms.
  • The foundation of a new data economy.
  • Generic public and private computations.

Interoperability

US$50 billion token market

The problem

  • It is costly to transfer value and data between chains.
  • Insecure solutions and single points of failure.

Our solution

  • Token bridges
  • Data bridges
  • Data oracles
  • Scalable, decentralized, and robust MPC on any encrypted data.

Scalability

US$1.5 trillion token economy

The problem

  • Blockchains are limited to three transactions per second.
  • US$50+ gas fees on transactions
  • Slow settlement

Our solution

  • The fastest consensus and finalization layer 1 protocol.
  • Secure layer 2 interoperability.
  • More secure and decentralized than a lightning network.

Explore our library of use cases and discover how Partisia Blockchain can serve your organization.

Explore use cases

Partisia Blockchain token economics

$MPC is the capped-supply native token of the Partisia Blockchain platform. We incentivize participants to become full block producers and validators by staking $MPC tokens.

You can pay fees for all sorts of operations on the network in liquid coins such as Ethereum and USD. You can bring them to Partisia Blockchain via our collateralized token bridge. Read our White Paper for more information.

The $MPC native token has a hard cap. The total cap, commonly known as the maximum cap, is set at one billion tokens.

Staking process and node types

It is straightforward to stake $MPC tokens using the Partisia Wallet. There are three types of node operators:

  • Baker node: Minimum stake 25,000 $MPC tokens
  • ZK node: Minimum stake 100,000 $MPC tokens
  • BYOC cross-chain node: Minimum stake 250,000 $MPC tokens

Additional rewards for node operators

We carve out 10% of the total supply of $MPC tokens to support node operators that help bootstrap the network. All token holders can participate by “delegated staking”, released in November 2022. We allocate a fixed number of $MPC tokens each quarter, and all token holders compete for the rewards by staking.

Token distribution overview

Ecosystem tokens

Partisia Blockchain has a 20% ecosystem token pool that we will release over ten years. We dedicate 10% to bootstrapping node operation and 10% to incentivizing strategic partners, community and developer growth, beta net incentive programs, and more.

Team tokens

Partisia Blockchain has allocated 15% for team members on a four-year vesting period.

Private and public token sale

The Partisia Blockchain Foundation sells 60% of tokens.

Token reserve

We hold 5% of tokens in a 10-year-plus reserve.

Token distribution of total supply

  • 35% private sale
  • 25% public sale and treasury
  • 20% ecosystem
  • 15% team
  • 5% reserve

Token unlocking schedule

The chart below represents the unlocking schedule of Presale Participants and team allocations. It takes four years for all team and presale allocations to become unlocked and fully diluted into the token economy, still marking less than 50% of the supply circulating by the end of the four years. Partisia Blockchain is proud to have one of the most prolonged unlock periods applied to presale participants in blockchain history, where all early stakeholders are aligned for the long run.

Schedule of MPC tokens unlocking on mainnet

  • Team – 9 founders
  • Team – others
  • Tier 1 – pre seed
  • Tier 2 – seed round 1
  • Tier 3 – seed round 2
  • Tier 4 – presale round 1
  • Tier 5 – presale round 2
  • Tier 6 – presale round 3
  • Tier 7 – presale round 4
  • Tier 8 – presale round 5
  • Tier 9 – presale round 6
  • Tier 10 – public sale
  • Tier 11 – public sale

Disclaimer

This website contains “forward-looking statements.” Forward-looking statements generally relate to future events or our future performance. This includes, but is not limited to, Partisia Blockchain Foundation projected performance; the expected development of its business and projects; execution of its vision and growth strategy; and completion of projects that are currently underway, in development or otherwise under consideration. Forward-looking statements represent our management’s beliefs and assumptions only as of the date of this presentation. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and undue reliance should not be placed on them. Such forward-looking statements necessarily involve known and unknown risks, which may cause actual performance and results in future periods to differ materially from any projections expressed or implied herein. Partisia Blockchain Foundation undertakes no obligation to update forward-looking statements. Although forward-looking statements are our best prediction at the time they are made, there can be no assurance that they will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially. The reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.

The information contained on this page is to serve as a reference only. This page will be amended, waived or modified from time to time, and it is the sale participant’s responsibility to check for updates.

At this time, Partisia Blockchain tokens ($MPC) are not being offered or distributed to U.S. retail investors. If you are citizen, resident of, or a person located or domiciled in, the United States of America including its states, territories or the District of Columbia or any entity, including, without limitation, any corporation or partnership created or organized in or under the laws of the United States of America, any state or territory thereof or the District of Columbia (a “U.S. person”), you cannot purchase Partisia Blockchain tokens ($MPC) at this time.

Sale participants will be required to undergo KYC/AML procedures, including submitting valid identification documents.